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EVAPORATION














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-EVAPORATORS

1                 Long tube vertical evaporators with either natural or forced circulation are most popular. Tubes are 19-63 mm dia and 12-30 ft long.

2                 In forced circulation, linear velocities in the tubes are 15-20 ft/sec.

3                 Elevation of boiling point by dissolved solids results in differences of 3-10F between solution and saturated vapor.

4                 When the boiling point rise is appreciable, the economic number of effects in series with forward feed is 4-6.

5                 When the boiling point rise is small, minimum cost is obtained with 8-10 effects in series.

6                 In backward feed the more concentrated solution is heated with the highest temperature steam so that heating surface is lessened, but the solution must be pumped between stages.

7                 The steam economy of   an N-stage battery is approximately 0.8N lb evaporation/lb of outside steam.

8                 Interstage steam pressures can be boosted with steam jet compressors of 20­30% efficiency or with mechanical compressors of 70-75% efficiency.































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